What are the harms of colonoscopy?
Overall, the harms per 100,000 colonoscopies were 50 perforations, 260 bleeds, and 3 deaths. Among patients undergoing screening colonoscopy, the likelihood of a bleeding complication was 240/100,000 and the likelihood of a perforation was 30/100,000. (LOE = 1a)
Reumkens A, Rondagh EJ, Bakker CM, Winkens B, Masclee AA, Sanduleanu S. Post-colonoscopy complications: a systematic review, time trends, and meta-analysis of
population-based studies. Am J Gastroenterol 2016;111(8):1092-1101.